Once upon a time I was pairing with a friend. This friend really wanted to put a comment in our code. I explained that if we needed a comment that we had done a bad job of letting our code speak for itself. He claimed that comments should be used to explain the ‘why’ and not the ‘how.’ This is why his comment was ok. I still disagreed and our conversation degraded until he became frustrated enough that he went home. This was not my proudest moment.
Recently, as he does once in a while, he brought up the comment discussion again. This time he used this gem of a tweet:
Well the comment quickly degraded into a discussion about exceptions. Many of us agreed that there are much better ways to handle most issues. I’m not saying that you should never use an exception so you can put away your torches and pitchforks. I will say that most people are using them wrong. Ok, I’m not really protecting CraigBuchek since you can just Google for him. Maybe you should so you can see how this conversation went to the point where many of us decided to write blog posts. As they write them I will update this post to links to their posts.
Like most examples when we are trying to prove a point, I’m sure Craig didn’t mean for his example to be picked apart about its finer points. I still can’t help but place judgment on the point he tried to make in less that 140 characters and with only seconds of thought.
So let’s take these two tweets and combine the comment with the code. This way we can view it in all its glory.
# Let this raise its exception if the fields don't exist user = c.get_setting('username')
WTF! Sorry Craig, but I’m going to change from talking about how crappy this comment is and I’m going to talk about alternatives to throwing this exception. I won’t even touch the fact that you only took 8 seconds to think about this. I’m going to say the whole method sucks. First, how many possible settings are in this thing? Is it like a big hash object? Did we have to make the method so generic? I’m going to assume that you think like I do in 8 seconds and that you really meant this:
# Let this raise its exception if the fields don't exist user = c.get_user('username')
It is still horrible, but we’ll bear with it. We need to make small refactorings.
First reason not to use an exception is that this doesn’t seem like an EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCE. I’m going to make another leap of faith and assume that ‘username’ is not really hard coded and it came from user input. User input is going to be bad. This is never exceptional. Now you are just using an exception as flow control. Actually read the last link. I think it is a good one. Then just go ahead and read the rest of the C2 wiki.
Ok, I’m going to assume that we are using something that returns nil, I already hate it, or pulls a user from something.
def get_user(username) #...wicked code that finds a user or returns nil end
I think that I can dig into why returning nil is bad, but that is another post. I still think this is better than an exception. I believe that all APIs and languages should use the principle of least surprise. Throwing an exception and unrolling the stack is a surprise. If you are reading the code utilizing this, it is not immediately known that this can throw an exception. I guess that explains Craig’s comment. Although I also don’t want to see a comment on every piece of code that throws an exception.
You see the problem is that comments are lies waiting in the wings. First every time I write the line of code I have to make sure that I add the comment. Then when I make it stop throwing exceptions I have to change all the comments. Most likely they won’t get changed. Since they don’t run I will never know. The next reader will think there is an exception when there isn’t. You really should have written a test instead of a comment. You could also make the name of the method say that it throws an exception. That is enough of a side track on why comments suck.
Now the code utilizing this needs something like the following:
user = c.get_user(username) if user # blah else # boo end
That is no better than a try catch. If we don’t have that code then we can possibly get a null pointer exception. The problem with null pointer exceptions is that the cross boarders of the code silently. Insert very offensive boarder crossing joke here. Often a null pointer error occurs 15 calls away from where the null originated. These can be frustrating to track down. Even more so if you have chained.method.calls all over your code.
Let’s try something different.
Ok, I’m going to start only placing the error case in the original method. It can no longer find users. This is a great first test case when you are doing TDD anyway.
def get_user(username) :user_not_found end
Well we’ve fixed the problem with a null pointer exception. At least now when we get the exception it will mention :user_not_found and we will be able to trace it to which thing.in.our.chain.is missing. Although we are still going to have that ‘if’ and it looks suspiciously like a begin…rescue.
user = c.get_user(username) if user != :user_not_found # blah else # boo end
So we changed one if for another, but we got something a little nicer when we do get exceptions.
Traditionally, I’ve been told, the Null Object Pattern returns an object that returns itself no matter what you call on it. I think that can be useful, sometimes. Often I believe this could hide many issues. So I want to return an object that represents the Null user. In fact let’s call it the NullUser.
def get_user(username) NullUser.new(username) end
I decided that we can pass the original username that was used to try and find a user so that we can look into the object and find out what user wasn’t found. The nice thing about an object is that it can answer the phone for the user. In fact it is a user. It is just a special kind of user. Now our code using the user can receive the messages intended for a user. The best part NO IFs.
user = c.get_user(username) # blah user.first_name
Now we can use this user to our hearts content. We can handle calls to it in a uniform way. When there really is no way to handle a certain call we can throw an exception from that specific case. I think this puts us in a better place, and allows us more chances to make decisions and expand functionality.What happens when we want a guest user? Well we just add that functionality to this class. We also passed in a username. So if a user isn’t found in the system we can give them limited access through a special NullUser, but we can still call them by a username since we tried to find them already. Remember the NullUser was initialized with the failed username attempt.
With this approach we have less error handling code, and we make sure that we are handling all cases of the missing user in the same way without duplication. This is because we have wrapped up how to handle a missing user by creating that class. In fact maybe we should refactor NullUser to be named MissingUser or GuestUser.
In case you didn’t notice, or have never heard of it, this Null Object Pattern is making heavy use of Poly Morphism. I thought that was one word until I just tried to look it up on the C2 wiki. Ok so maybe it is one word, because I know we just Replaced a Conditional with Polymorphism. Oh well, that debate will have to stand on a different day.
Let me know if you have any submissions to this fun foray.